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protestant vs catholic war

protestant vs catholic war

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By the end of August disease and a shortage of supplies had reduced his army, and he had to order a retreat towards his base at Dunbar. As the former Member of Parliament Admiral Robert Blake blockaded Prince Rupert's fleet in Kinsale, Oliver Cromwell could land at Dublin on 15 August 1649 with an army to quell the Royalist alliance in Ireland. On the political front, William of Orange saw the opportunity to amass support for a large scale insurrection aimed at procuring independence from Spain. France, although always ruled by a Catholic monarch, had played a major part in supporting the Protestants in Germany and the Netherlands against their dynastic rivals, the Habsburgs. Beginning as a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire, it gradually developed into a general war involving much of Europe, for reasons not necessarily related to religion. In February 1608, at the Diet (Reichstag) of the Holy Roman Empire, the Catholic princes introduced a Top Tag’s. Decisions Revisited: Why Did You Choose a Public or Private College? Episodes of widespread famine and disease devastated the population of the German states and, to a lesser extent, the Low Countries and Italy, while bankrupting many of the powers involved. Create your account. This the king refused, and deteriorating relations led to the outbreak of war in 1642. Most of the 1,600 surviving defenders were put to death and 400 leading citizens were executed. Christian, however, was forced to retire before the combined forces of Imperial generals Albrecht von Wallenstein and Tilly. The Guises then proposed a settlement with a cipher as heir and demanded a meeting of the Estates-General, which was to be held in Blois. After losing his main support in Lübeck, Christoph quickly fell to defeat, finally losing his last stronghold of Copenhagen in 1536. In 1572, rising tensions between local Catholics and Protestant forces attending the wedding of the Protestant Henry of Navarre, and the King's sister, Marguerite de Valois, culminated in the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Martin Luther rejected the demands of the insurgents and upheld the right of Germany's rulers to suppress the uprisings,[24] setting out his views in his polemic Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants. While there was only Catholic Church till 1054 AD, there was a schism in the monolithic religion at that time, and Christianity got divided between the Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox Churches. In 1645 Parliament passed the Self-denying Ordinance, by which all members of either House of Parliament laid down their commands, allowing the re-organization of its main forces into the New Model Army. Catching the exhausted defenders sleeping, they massacred 6,000 men, women and children. Even then, religious strife continued through the Glorious Revolution and thereafter. In the province of Ulster in the North of the country, Shane O'Neill's Rebellion occurred from 1558 to 1567, and in the South of the Country the Desmond Rebellions occurred in 1569–1573 and 1579–1583 in the province of Munster. Charles V was raised in Brussels; Philip II was considered a foreigner. Since part of the Holy Roman Empire bordered France, they would not tolerate a growing Hapsburg power. Anyone can earn Don Fadrique's army later attempted to besiege Alkmaar but the rebels won by opening the dikes and routing the Spanish troops. Matthys identified Münster as the "New Jerusalem", and preparations were made to not only hold what had been gained, but to proceed from Münster toward the conquest of the world. Simultaneously Parliament offered concessions to the Scots in return for their aid and assistance. The following year, the attacks extended to over 20 cities and towns, and would, in turn, incite Catholic urban groups to massacres and riots in Sens, Cahors, Carcassonne, Tours and other cities. On the political side, it was th… In 1532 the Emperor, pressed by external troubles, stepped back from confrontation, offering the "Peace of Nuremberg", which suspended all action against the Protestant states pending a General Council of the Church. Protestant Union, military alliance (1608–21) among the Protestant states of Germany for mutual protection against the growing power of the Roman Catholic states of Counter-Reformation Europe. Catherine and Charles decided this time to ally themselves with the House of Guise. This "Spanish Fury" was used by William to reinforce his arguments to ally all the Netherlands' Provinces with him. [30] Farnese repeopled it with Walloon Catholics. Archduke Albert and Isabel of Austria were given sovereign rights in the Netherlands forming a truce in 1609 that gave the Dutch a brief respite from war. This period was also known for the Inquisition. In December 1584, the Duke of Guise signed the Treaty of Joinville on behalf of the Catholic League with Philip II of Spain, who supplied a considerable annual grant to the League. The first pitched battle of the war, fought at Edgehill on 23 October 1642, proved inconclusive, and both the Royalists and Parliamentarians claimed it as a victory. Catholic officers included General Pierre Beauregard, General James Longstreet, General William Hardee, and Admiral Rafael Semmes. A mob poured into the church and it was entirely gutted. It was Europe's largest and most widespread popular uprising before the 1789 French Revolution. In Spain, the kings used the Inquisition to torture and burn Protestants. Philip became dissatisfied with Margaret, and seized the opportunity to relieve her. The Elector of Saxony, the Landgrave of Hesse, and other North German princes not only protected Luther from retaliation from the edict of outlawry issued by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, but also used state power to enforce the establishment of Lutheran worship in their lands, in what is called the Magisterial Reformation. As the reformation spread throughout Europe, it gained popularity in Switze… Unlike his father, he had no basic understanding of the people placed under his direction. Calvinists began their wave of uncontrolled atrocities aimed at the Catholics. A Scottish rebellion, known as the Bishops War, soon followed, leading to the defeat of a weak royalist counter-force in 1640. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. She therefore supported religious toleration in the shape of the Edict of Saint-Germain (January 1562), which allowed the Huguenots to worship publicly outside of towns and privately inside of them. Tensions remained essentially unresolved. The period of the French Wars of Religion effectively removed France's influence as a major European power, allowing the Catholic forces in the Holy Roman Empire to regroup and recover. Nevertheless, Protestant religions, especially Calvinism, seeped into the Low Countries during the early part of the 16th century due to the fact that it was a major center for trade. The Committee of Sixteen took complete control of the government and welcomed the Duke of Guise to Paris. The Duke of Alva had money sent from Spain but it was intercepted by English privateers who were beginning to establish England as a viable world power. [35] and it would be a puppet state until 1814, when Frederick VI renounced his claims to the Crown of Norway in favor of the King of Sweden as part of the Treaty of Kiel. She had remained unified; her soldiers had fought bravely, and Americans had witnessed uncountable acts of Catholic charity. In 1532, King Francis I intervened politically and militarily in support of Protestant German princes against the Habsburgs, as did King Henry II in 1551. Like many wars of its time period, the 30 Years' Warhad its root in politics and religion. Henry soon found himself in the difficult position of trying to maintain royal authority in the face of feuding warlords who refused to compromise. With this, the Bohemian phase of the 30 Years' War ended in a victory for Catholicism and the Hapsburgs of the Holy Roman Empire. In January, 1568, 84 people were executed from Valenciennes alone. Although this seems like a happy ending for Protestantism within the Empire and Germany, it came at a very high price. In response to the threat, Cromwell left some of his lieutenants in Ireland to continue the suppression of the Irish Royalists and returned to England. Added to this was the Calvinist teaching that leading citizens had the duty to overthrow an "ungodly" ruler (i.e. The siege of Drogheda and massacre of nearly 3,500 people[citation needed]—comprising around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and all the men in the town carrying arms, including civilians, prisoners, and Catholic priests—became one of the historical memories that has driven Irish-English and Catholic-Protestant strife during the last three centuries. The wars listed were the most severe in casualties; the remaining religious conflicts in Europe lasted for only a few years, a year, or less and/or were much less violent. Protestants entered cathedrals smashing holy objects, breaking up altars and statues and smashing stained glass windows. The last straw was the installation of a Catholic reeve at Baden, and Zürich declared war on 8 June (First War of Kappel), occupied the Thurgau and the territories of the Abbey of St. Gall, and marched to Kappel at the border to Zug. The conflict took place mostly in southern, western and central areas of modern Germany but also affected areas in neighboring modern Switzerland, Austria and the Netherlands (for example, the 1535 Anabaptist riot in Amsterdam[16]). What ensued was a series of conflicts that would devastate German lands and see the deaths of many Europeans. [28], While Alva rested, he sent his son Don Fadrique to revenge the Beggar's atrocities. The Reformation came to Britain and Ireland with King Henry VIII of England's breach with the Catholic Church in 1533. The taxation was unilateral in nature: it was levied by a foreign political entity and the benefit derived from the taxes went to Spain. After the Convention of Estates deposed the Catholic king James VII on 11 April 1689, they offered the royal title to William and his wife Mary (the Protestant daughter of James), which they accepted on 11 May 1689. [7][dubious – discuss][clarification needed], Series of wars waged in Europe from ca. The victors confiscated almost all Irish Catholic-owned land in the wake of the conquest and distributed it to the Parliament's creditors, to the Parliamentary soldiers who served in Ireland, and to English people who had settled there before the war. Church property was seized, and Catholic worship was forbidden in most territories that adopted the Lutheran Reformation. Transcript. IMHO: Protestant ethics are concerned with the actions and results needed to produce good works, catholic ethics are concerned with symbols and beliefs in order to create internal purity. One band of marauders even styled themselves as "Werewolves". The rejection of Ferdinand as Crown Prince by the mostly Hussite Bohemia triggered the Thirty Years' War in 1618, when his representatives were defenestrated in Prague. This was the last battle of the 30 Years' War. Meanwhile, the solidly Catholic people of Paris, under the influence of the Committee of Sixteen, were becoming dissatisfied with Henry III and his failure to defeat the Calvinists. Since the 30 Years' War included so many countries warring against the Holy Roman Empire, it is usually divided into four phases. Starting as a revolt against feudal oppression, the peasants' uprising became a war against all constituted authorities, and an attempt to establish by force an ideal Christian commonwealth. Failure to comply would result in prosecution by the Imperial Court. The Holy Roman Empire, encompassing present-day Germany and surrounding territory, was the area most devastated by the wars of religion. Ironically, the conflict would end in Prague, the place it had begun when a few rebellious Protestants threw some Catholic officials out a window. Charles was executed in 1649, and the monarchy was not restored until 1660. After several unsuccessful attempts, William was assassinated in 1584 and died penniless. The political conflicts thus engendered within the Empire led almost inevitably to war. Catholicism was forcibly suppressed. However, religion was only one of the causes, which also included revolts, territorial ambitions, and Great Power conflicts. There existed no true unity between Catholics, Calvinists, and Protestants against Alva. The preaching of Martin Luther and his many followers raised tensions across Europe. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. Catholic v Protestant Wars The division between Catholic and Protestant changed European history and led to a series of bloody religious wars, especially in the 16 th and 17 th. Oddly, this didn't extend to the Protestants in the south. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. However, Montrose, who had raised a mercenary force in Norway, later returned but did not succeed in raising many Highland clans, and the Covenanters defeated his army at the Battle of Carbisdale in Ross-shire on 27 April 1650. The Thirty Years' War was a conflict primarily fought in Central Europe from 1618 to 1648; estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. On 1 July, Knox preached from the pulpit of St Giles', the most influential in the capital. Bigod's rebellion was an armed rebellion by English Roman Catholics in Cumberland and Westmorland against King Henry VIII of England and the English Parliament. In 1618, the Protestant Bohemian revolt began when Protestant rebels threw a few Catholic officials from the window of a government building. By the end of the war, the Church’s prestige was greatly enhanced. The Bourbons, with English support and led by Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, and Admiral Coligny, began to seize and garrison strategic towns along the Loire. Upon taking the throne, he moved to weaken the power of Protestantism within the land. Philip gave full power to Alva in 1567. Their captives were often given a choice between Calvinism and death. In Denmark this increased royal revenues by 300%. Spain made progress in trying to suppress the Dutch but the Dutch recovered. In 1529 under the lead of Huldrych Zwingli, the Protestant canton and city of Zürich had concluded with other Protestant cantons a defence alliance, the Christliches Burgrecht, which also included the cities of Konstanz and Strasbourg. war between protestants and catholics Essay Examples. A new Governor of the Netherlands followed. This, however, was no easy task. 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